Scientists discover new mechanisms bacteria use to guard themselves from antibiotics
Researchers at the University of Birmingham have identified new mechanisms used by bacteria to resist infection-fighting antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria evolve mechanisms to withstand the drugs which are used to treat infections.
The team of experts at the university’s Institute of Microbiology and Infection focussed their research on E. coli, which can cause urinary and blood stream infections.
Using novel experimental approaches, involving whole genome DNA sequencing never previously applied in this area of research, the team identified mechanisms or ‘strategies’ that bacteria use to protect themselves from antibiotics.
Senior author Professor David Grainger said: “We investigated a gene found in bacteria that is involved in resistance to multiple antibiotics.
“Although we have known about this gene for many decades, the ‘nuts and bolts’ of how it provides resistance to antibiotics has been difficult to pick apart.
“Our research identified previously unknown roles for this gene in controlling processes that provide drug resistance.
“We found two completely unexpected mechanisms that bacteria use to protect themselves from antibiotics. One protected their DNA from the harmful effects of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and the other prevented doxycyline getting inside bacteria.”
Dr Prateek Sharma, who did much of the experimental work, adds: “The resistance mechanisms that we identified are found in many different species of bacteria therefore, our research could lead to the discovery of molecules that could be developed into new drugs that can treat bacterial infections.”
The study, published today in Nature Communications, was the result of a decade-long research project carried out by the university.
Co-author Professor Laura Piddock concludes: “Antibiotics underpin modern medical, veterinary and farming practices world-wide. However, the efficacy of antibiotics is decreasing as more bacteria become resistant.
“Research such as ours that provides greater understanding of drug resistance mechanisms is vital if we are to address the global crisis of antibiotic resistance.”
Notes to editors
Reference: Sharma et al (2017). ‘The multiple antibiotic resistance operon of enteric bacteria controls DNA repair and outer membrane integrity’. Nature Communications.
The research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC grant number: BB/N014200/1).
About University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is ranked amongst the world’s top 100 institutions. Its work brings people from across the world to Birmingham, including researchers, teachers and more than 5,000 international students from over 150 countries.
BBSRC invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond.
Funded by government, BBSRC invested £469 million in world-class bioscience in 2016-17. We support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes. BBSRC research and the people we fund are helping society to meet major challenges, including food security, green energy and healthier, longer lives. Our investments underpin important UK economic sectors, such as farming, food, industrial biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.
Tags: health AMR antibiotics human health animal welfare agriculture press release